Anbefalte artikler




Jensen A, Garnier Y, Berger R. Dynamics of fetal circulatory responses to hypoxia and asphyxia. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 1999;84(2):155–72.

Westgate JA, Bennet L, Gunn AJ. Fetal heart rate variability changes during brief repeated umbilical cord occlusion in near term fetal sheep. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1999 Jul;106(7):664-71.

Bennet L, Westgate JA, Liu YC, Wassink G, Gunn AJ. Fetal acidosis and hypotension during repeated umbilical cord occlusions are associated with enhanced chemoreflex responses in near-term fetal sheep. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2005 Oct;99(4):1477-82

Lear CA, Galinsky R, Wassink G, Yamaguchi K, Davidson JO, Westgate JA, Bennet L, Gunn AJ. The myths and physiology surrounding intrapartum decelerations: the critical role of the peripheral chemoreflex. J Physiol. 2016 Sep 1;594(17):4711-25

Lear CA, Wassink G, Westgate JA, Nijhuis JG, Ugwumadu A, Galinsky R, Bennet L, Gunn AJ. The peripheral chemoreflex: indefatigable guardian of fetal physiological adaptation to labour. J Physiol. 2018 Dec;596(23):5611-5623.

Kiserud T, Acharya G. The fetal circulation. Prenat Diagn. 2004 Dec 30;24(13):1049-59.

Kiserud T. Physiology of the fetal circulation. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med. 2005 Dec;10(6):493-503


Yli BM, Kjellmer I. Pathophysiology of foetal oxygenation and cell damage during labour. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 2016 Jan;30:9-21


Low JA. Determining the contribution of asphyxia to brain damage in the

neonate. J Obstet Gynaecol Res 2004 Aug;30(4):276-86.





Ayres-de-Campos D. Introduction: Why is intrapartum foetal monitoring necessary - Impact on outcomes and interventions. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 2016 Jan; 30:3-8. 


Andreasen S, Backe B, Øian P. Claims for compensation after alleged birth asphyxia: a nationwide study covering 15 years. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2014 Feb;93(2):152-8.


Amorim-Costa C, Costa-Santos C, Ayres-de-Campos D, Bernardes J. Longitudinal evaluation of computerized cardiotocographic parameters throughout pregnancy in normal fetuses: a prospective cohort study. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2016 Oct;95(10):1143-52.


Cahill AG, Tuuli MG, Stout MJ, López JD, Macones GA. A prospective cohort study of fetal heart rate monitoring: deceleration area is predictive of fetal acidemia. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2018 May;218(5):523.e1-523.e12.


Tarvonen M, Hovi P, Sainio S, Vuorela P, Andersson S, Teramo K. Intrapartum zigzag pattern of fetal heart rate is an early sign of fetal hypoxia: A large obstetric retrospective cohort study. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2021 Feb;100(2):252-262

Tarvonin M et al. Factors associated with intrapartum ZigZag pattern of fetal heart rate: A retrospective one-year cohort study of 5150 singleton childbirth. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2021 Mar;258:118-125

Tarvonen MJ, Lear CA, Andersson S, Gunn AJ, Teramo KA. Increased variability of fetal heart rate during labour: a review of preclinical and clinical studies. BJOG. 2022 Nov;129(12):2070-2081. 


Vintzileos AM, Smulian JC. Abnormal fetal heart rate patterns caused by pathophysiologic processes other than fetal acidemia. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2023 May;228(5S):S1144-S1157


Kathleen Rice Simpson , Dotti C.  James: Effects of oxytocin-induced uterine hyperstimulation during labor on fetal oxygen status and fetal heart rate patterns; American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology Volume 199, Issue 1 2008 34.e1 - 34.e5


Mark I Evans et al. Uterine contraction frequency in the last hour of labor: how many contractions are too many? J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2021 Nov 3;1-8.


M.W..E .Frenken et al. The association between uterine contraction frequency and fetal scalp pH in women with suspicious or pathological fetal heart rate tracings: A retrospective study; Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2022 Apr;271:1-6.


Ehsanipoor RM, Saccone G, Seligman NS, Pierce-Williams RAM, Ciardulli A, Berghella V. Intravenous fluid rate for reduction of cesarean delivery rate in nulliparous women: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2017 Jul;96(7):804-811. 


Gyllencreutz E, Varli IH, Johansson K, Lindqvist PG, Holzmann M. The association between undetected small-for-gestational age and abnormal admission cardiotocography: A registry-based study. BJOG. 2023 Apr 25. 



Skalp blodprøve (forkortelse engelsk: FBS – fetal blood sampling)


Carbonne B, Pons K, Maisonneuve E. Foetal scalp blood sampling during labour for pH and lactate measurements. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 2016 Jan;30:62-7



Wiberg-Itzel E, Lipponer C, Norman M, Herbst A, Prebensen D, Hansson A, Bryngelsson AL, Christoffersson M, Sennström M, Wennerholm UB, Nordström L. Determination of pH or lactate in fetal scalp blood in management of intrapartum fetal distress: randomised controlled multicentre trial. BMJ. 2008 Jun 7;336(7656)


Holzmann M, Wretler S, Cnattingius S, Nordström L. Neonatal outcome and delivery mode in labors with repetitive fetal scalp blood sampling. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2015 Jan;184:97-102. 


Stål I, Wennerholm UB, Nordstrom L, Ladfors L, Wiberg-Itzel E. Fetal scalp blood sampling during second stage of labor - analyzing lactate or pH? A secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2022 Mar;35(6):1100-1107.



Amer-Wåhlin I, Ugwumadu A, Yli BM, Kwee A, Timonen S, Cole V, Ayres-de-Campos D, Roth GE, Schwarz C, Ramenghi LA, Todros T, Ehlinger V, Vayssiere C; Study Group of Intrapartum Fetal Monitoring (European Association of Perinatal Medicine). Fetal electrocardiography ST-segment analysis for intrapartum monitoring: a critical appraisal of conflicting evidence and a way forward. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2019 Dec;221(6):577-601.e11.


Amer-Wahlin I, Kwee A. Combined cardiotocographic and ST event analysis: A review. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 2016 Jan;30:48-61.


Kessler J, Moster D, Albrechtsen S. Intrapartum monitoring of high-risk deliveries with ST analysis of the fetal electrocardiogram: an observational study of 6010 deliveries. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2013 Jan;92(1):75-84

Kessler J, Moster D, Albrechtsen S. Delay in intervention increases neonatal morbidity in births monitored with cardiotocography and ST-waveform analysis. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2014 Feb;93(2):175-81.

Becker J, van Rijswijk J, Versteijnen B, Evers A, van den Akker E, van Beek E, Bolte A, Rijnders R, Mol B, Moons K, Porath M, Drogtrop A, Schuitemaker N, Willekes C, Westerhuis M, Visser G, Kwee A. Is intrapartum fever associated with ST-waveform changes of the fetal electrocardiogram? A retrospective cohort study. BJOG 2012;119:1410–1416.

Gay E, Bornallet G, Gaucherand P, Doret M. Intrapartum electrocardiogram alteration in fetuses with congenital heart disease: a case-control study. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2015 Nov;194:111-4

Yli BM, Källen K, Khoury J, Stray-Pedersen B, Amer-Wåhlin I. Intrapartum cardiotocography and ST-analysis of labor in diabetic patients. J Perinat Med. 2011 Jul;39(4):457-65.



SYRE-BASE/ Asfyksi/ Encelophati / Langtids utfall / gestasjons alder


Olofsson P. Umbilical cord pH, blood gases, and lactate at birth: normal values, interpretation, and clinical utility. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2023 May;228(5S):S1222-S1240


Kro GA, Yli BM, Rasmussen S, Norèn H, Amer-Wåhlin I, Saugstad OD, Stray-Pedersen B, Rosén KG. A new tool for the validation of umbilical cord acid-base data. BJOG. 2010 Nov;117(12):1544-52


Malin GL, Morris RK, Khan KS. Strength of association between umbilical cord pH and perinatal and long term outcomes: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ. 2010 May 13;340:c1471.



Modabbernia A, Mollon J, Boffetta P, Reichenberg A. Impaired Gas Exchange at Birth and Risk of Intellectual Disability and Autism: A Meta-analysis. J Autism Dev Disord. 2016 May;46(5):1847-59


Seikku L, Gissler M, Andersson S, Rahkonen P, Stefanovic V, Tikkanen M, Paavonen J, Rahkonen L. Asphyxia, Neurologic Morbidity, and Perinatal Mortality in Early-Term and Postterm Birth. Pediatrics. 2016 Jun;137(6):e20153334. 



Lorain P, Bower A, Gottardi E, Dommergues M, Foix L'Helias L, Guellec I, Kayem G. Risk factors for hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy in cases of severe acidosis: A case-control study. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2022 Apr;101(4):471-478.


El Marroun H, Zou R, Leeuwenburg MF, Steegers EAP, Reiss IKM, Muetzel RL, Kushner SA, Tiemeier H. Association of Gestational Age at Birth With Brain Morphometry. JAMA Pediatr. 2020 Dec 1;174(12):1149-1158






Sandström A, Altman M, Cnattingius S, Johansson S, Ahlberg M, Stephansson O. Durations of second stage of labor and pushing, and adverse neonatal outcomes: a population-based cohort study. J Perinatol. 2017 Mar;37(3):236-242

Yli BM, Kro GA, Rasmussen S, Khoury J, Norèn H, Amer-Wåhlin I, Saugstad OD, Stray-Pedersen B. How does the duration of active pushing in labor affect neonatal outcomes? J Perinat Med. 2011 Nov 19;40(2):171-8.